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Attachment
a 2 way emotional bond between 2 people, leadds to certain behaviours eg clinging
Classical Conditioning
Learning through association
Operant Conditioning
Learning through rewards, reinforcement and punishment
Bowlby's attachment theory
Imprinting, Sensitive period, Social releasers, Monotropy, Internal working model, Continuity hypothesis
Tronick
Bowlby's theory is universal. Studies African tribe
Carlson
Insensitive care giving was associated with disorganised attachment and psychological problems in adulthood
Kagan
Temperament Hypothesis
Ainsworth
Strange Situation
Types of attachment
Secure, Insecure - resistant, insecure - avoidant
Main and Solomon
Disorganised attachment - lack of consistent patterns
Hazan and Shaver
Shows the effect of Internal working model. They carried out the 'Love quiz' in the newspaper. Found consistent patterns.
Cultural Variation
Strongest attachment are always formed with mother. There are differences in the patterns culturally.
Van Ijendoorn and Kroonenberg
Meta-analysis of 32 studies. Found inter and intra differences
James Robertson
Brief separation = long term outburst of anger.
Skeels and Dye
Some children with IQ deficits were moved to a home for mentally adults. When IQ's were restested the IQ had increased. Adults provided missing emotional care.
Hodges and Tizard
Children assessed at regular intervals until 16. Children who had been adopted/restored to original families. Restored = fewer attachments to mother. Adopted = closely attached to mother. Both groups = peer problems
Rutter
Romanian orphans, adopted before 6 months = normal emotional development. After 6 months = Disinhibited attachment
NICHD Study
Children in full time day-care were close to 3 times more likely to show behaviour problems
EPPE Study
Children who spent longer in day care showed more anto-social behaviour according to the teachers
Minnesota longitudinal study
Securely attached infants are more likely to be positive
Mediating factors of Day Care
Quality, Lack of Commitment and interest, Individual Differences, Child's age and no. of hours, Applications
Influences of Daycare research
Importance of high quality, high staff:child, minimal staff turnover, qualified and experienced staff
Influences of Attachment research
Improving quality, Care of hospitalised children, adoption, improved the quality of parenting.