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Massless bundle of concentrated electromagnetic energy
Electromagnetic wave with constantly changing electric and magnetic fields that behaves as both a particle and a wave in the range of 400-700 mm
Light Transmission
Translucent - transmits light with distortion, Transparent - transmits light without distortion
Only one direction of preferred vector allowed through
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Radio Waves, Microwaves, Infared
Quality of material that absorbs light without remission
Full shadow
Partial shadow
thin beam of light
Color Spectrum
Discovered by Newton: ROYGBIV
White Light
Combination of all colors
Selectively absorbs color whereas light selectively adds color
Additive Primary Colors
Red, Blue, Green
Red + Green
Red + Blue
Blue + Green
Complementary Colors
When two colors are added together and produce white they are complimentary (every color has a complimentary color)
Subtractive Primary Colors
Magenta, Yellow, Cyan, and Black
Process in which sound or light is absorbed and re-emitted in all directions
The return of a wave back into its original medium
line perpendicular to the surface where reflection is taking place
Angle of Incidence
Angle between the incident ray and normal
Angle of Reflection
Angle between reflected ray and normal
Law of Reflection
Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflection
Virtual image
Occurs when light does not really reach a location in the mirror
Diffuse Reflection
Occurs when light is incident on a rough surface and scatters in many direction
Bending of waves toward or away from the normal as wave enters a new medium with a different index of refraction
An example of atmospheric refraction
Separation of light into colors arranged by their frequency
Critical Angle
Angle of incidence at which light is refracted at a 90 degree and with respect to the normal. The intensity is therefore 0.
Converging lense
thicker in the middle
Diverging Lense
thinner in the middle
Principal Axis
line joining the centers of curvature of surfaces
Focal Point
point at which a beam of light parallel to the principle axis converges
Focal Plane
plane perpendicular to the principal axis that passes through the focal point or the lense
Focal Length
Distance from the center of a lens to the focal point
Real Image
image produced by a converging lens or curved convex mirror
Snell's Law
When travelling from air into a substance, the ratio of sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is equal to the index of refraction of the new medium
Total Internal Reflection
the complete reflection that takes place within a substance when the angle of incidence of light striking the surface boundary is less than the critical angle
Requires that light source be behind viewer and relies upon Dispersion, Total Internal Reflection, and Refraction
Thin Film Interference
constructive and destructive interference of light waves can occur within thin films (creating waves of nodes and anti-nodes)
Chromatic Abberation
the rainbow effect when light is dispersed through lens caused by refraction of different colors at different rates
Spherical Abberation
the fact that a spherical mirror does not bring all rays parallel to the principal axis to a single image point after reflection due to curvature
Newton's Theory
Light was made of small hard particles traveling at very fast rates (Crepuscular Theory)
Huygen's Theory
Light is a Wave
Young's Experiment
Light through two slits displayed diffraction and interference, and was therefore a wave
Maxwell's Explanation
Electric fields changed magnetic fields producing a electromagnetic wave
Einstein's Theory
Light traveled as a way but on the quantum level contained condensed massless packets of energy called Photons