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the process of adapting socially and psychologically to a new culture, implying the creation of a second identity.
achievement test
an assessment measuring how well learners have done on a particular programme of study.
action research
research often undertaken by teachers that aims to solve immediate problems and improve practice in their own professional environment.
adjacency pair
in conversation, the occurrence of two consecutive utterances by two speakers in which the first turn provokes the response.
feelings and emotion, including factors such as anxiety and motivation.
affective filter
a hypothetical mechanism that reflects learners’ emotional readiness to learn.
portraying an active and positive image of learners, agency suggests learners approach learning with their own agendas and purposes.
a feeling of social uncertainty and lack of cultural attachment.
apprenticeship of observation
the informal and largely unreflective observation and evaluation of teachers undertaken by schoolchildren who later become teachers themselves.
sometimes distinguished from method, approach refers to the coherent set of assumptions about language and language learning that underpin l2 teaching methods and methodology.
audiolingualism/audiolingual method
a language teaching method based on behaviourist theories of learning and structural approaches to language, and emphasizing habit formation through repetition and controlled practice.
a notion emphasizing ‘real-world’ language, language use and texts in language learning.
the process of internalizing knowledge so that a task can be performed auto - matically, thereby freeing up the learner’s cognitive resources.
the ability of individuals to take charge of, and responsibility for, their own learning.
psychological theory that suggests learning, including language learning, is the result of habit formation via a process of ‘stimulus-response-reinforcement’.