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declarative knowledge
knowledge that learners have and can talk about.
deductive learning
the presentation of rules, which are then applied.
developmental error
an error that is the consequence of the learner’s developing internal language system.
developmental sequence/stage
the order in which certain features of a language are acquired.
direct method
teaching based on the beliefs that only the target language should be used in class, that grammar should be taught inductively, and that there should be no translation.
english as a lingua franca
the variety of english used between non-native speakers who do not share a first language.
english for specific purposes (esp)
the english language and skills necessary to meet a specific need or role, for example, an occupation or academic study.
incorrect or idiosyncratic language resulting from the learner’s developing internal second language system.
exploratory practice
a form of practitioner research in which teachers and learners work together to explore and understand classroom life.
expressive morality
the subtle acts and gestures through which teachers (and learners) send messages about their values.
extrinsic motivation
motivation arising from factors ‘external’ to the learner,
focus on form
attending to language forms and structures at any stage of instruction, often as they arise within the context of meaningful interaction.
focus on forms
instruction that is organized around the systematic presentation of language forms.
formative assessment
assessment that aims to support learning and improve learners’ performance, usually as a course is progressing.