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a lack of change in a learner’s interlanguage, with errors becoming permanent.
global error
an error that hinders understanding and communication.
grammar-translation method
an approach to language teaching in which learners focus on grammar rules and vocabulary memorization. teaching is deductive and focuses on written language, requiring learners to translate example sentences.
a type of discourse, spoken or written, which has a particular form or set of conventions,
inductive learning
inferring rules about language from examples.
information processing
an approach to learning that suggests that there is a limit to the amount of information learners can consciously focus on at any one time. through repeated practice, such information is processed and automatized, freeing learners to attend to other things.
theoretical approaches suggesting that humans are born with an innate knowledge of, and the mental ability to acquire, language.
the language, either spoken or written, that learners are exposed to.
input hypothesis
the theory, associated with krashen, which suggests that l2 acquisition occurs when learners are exposed to comprehensible input and have a low affective filter.
instrumental orientation
learning a second language for practical reasons, such as passing an exam or getting a better job.
the language that a learner retains from l2 instruction and/or input (also referred to as uptake).
integrative orientation
learning an l2 based on the learner’s identification with the target culture and even their desire to integrate with members of that community.
interaction hypothesis
the suggestion, by long, that language learning results from the learners’ ability to process input and, furthermore, on their ability to generate input and negotiate meanings through interaction and conversation.
interference error
an error resulting from the influence of the learner’s l1 on their l2.
a learner’s developing internal second language system that lies somewhere between the learner’s first language and their second language. ınterlanguages are systematic, but also develop as learners revise their internalized hypotheses about the l2.