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internal syllabus
drawing on evidence of developmental sequences in language acquisition and ideas surrounding the natural order of l2 development, learners are said to have an ‘internal syllabus’ that establishes the route of l2 acquisition.
intrinsic motivation
motivation ‘from within’.
investment
learners are said to invest in l2 learning if they believe it will provide them with the knowledge and ways of thinking they need to function successfully in society. proponents of ‘investment’ suggest that this social perspective contrasts with the more individual viewpoint implicit in the concept of motivation.
language acquisition
often used interchangeably with language learning. however, some theorists (e.g., krashen) note a contrast between acquisition and learning, suggesting that acquisition is unconscious and ‘natural’ and takes place when the focus is on meaning rather than form.
language ego
the identity a person develops or assumes through language. learning a second language, with the possibility of making errors and not being understood, may threaten a learner’s ego.
language learning
in this book, a general term for learners’ l2 development. however, learning has been contrasted with language acquisition by some researchers (e.g., krashen) and involves conscious study of language.
language learning strategies
mental and physical activities that are chosen by learners in order to fulfil a specific purpose or achieve a specific goal; learners using strategies to regulate and control their own language learning.
learnability
teachability hypothesis
learner training
focusing on how to learn rather than what to learn, learner training aims to help learners make more effective use of the learning opportunities they encounter and encourage learner autonomy.
learning opportunity
learners may learn from any encounter with the target language, although what they might learn can be unpredictable.
learning styles
preferred ways of learning that are relatively stable, e.g., group-oriented or individualistic, verbal or visual.
linguistic competence
underlying knowledge of a language system and its grammar, rather than the actual use of language.
linguistic imperialism
the suggestion that the spread and teaching of english perpetuates colonial (or neo-colonial) attitudes and practices, thereby promoting the political and economic interests of english l1 speaking countries.
local error
an error that relates to only part of a message and does not prevent it from being understood.
metalanguage
the language that teachers use to explain or describe the target language; broader definitions of metalanguage include the language of classroom management such as instructions.