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method
an increasingly problematic concept, but traditionally seen as a theoretically consistent set of teaching principles that would lead to the most effective learning outcomes if followed correctly.
methodology
what practising teachers actually do in the classroom to achieve their stated or unstated teaching objectives.
mistake
a performance error, or slip, in language that learners know and might usually get right.
motivation
an abstract term used to explain why people think and behave as they do, and which subsumes a whole range of motives that influence behaviour.
native speaker
a problematic term that is increasingly questioned, but, traditionally, a person who has acquired a particular language from an early age and is fully proficient in that language.
native-speakerism
the belief that native speakers and ‘western culture’ represent an ideal in terms of language norms, english language teachers and associated elt methodology.
natural order hypothesis
the suggestion that the order in which l2 items are acquired is predictable; see also developmental sequences and internal syllabus.
negotiation of meaning
interaction between speakers who adjust their speech to make themselves understood and to repair misunderstandings.
noticing
the suggestion that learners need to ‘pay attention’ to or ‘notice’ language consciously before they can understand and produce it.
notional-functional syllabus
central to the emergence of clt, a syllabus primarily organized around functions (e.g., ‘apologizing’ or ‘requesting’) and notions (e.g., ‘logical relationships’ or ‘time and duration’).
output
the language that learners produce, both spoken and written.
output hypothesis
the suggestion, associated with swain, that language production, especially spoken output, is necessary for l2 acquisition to take place.
paradigm
according to kuhn, a widely accepted or common-sense way of thinking and behaving within ‘normal science’, legitimizing what counts as ‘proper’ theory and practice.
postmethod
the notion that teaching and learning needs to move ‘beyond methods’, enabling teachers to develop a ‘principled eclecticism’ that is appropriate to local contexts.
presentation-practice-production (ppp)
emerging from audiolingualism, a three-stage approach to teaching in which language is first presented to learners who subsequently engage in controlled practice, focusing on accuracy. finally, learners ‘produce’ the language creatively in ‘free practice’.