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procedural knowledge
knowledge of how to do something, and which underpins fluent or automatic language use.
process/procedural syllabus
a syllabus that prioritizes the route or ‘means’ of learning rather than specifying l2 outcomes or the ‘ends’ of learning.
proficiency test
an assessment measuring the level learners have reached in the l2, unrelated to a specific language course or programme.
repeating a learner’s incorrect utterance, but reformulating it into a correct form, phrase or sentence.
with links to ideas surrounding acculturation and investment, receptivity is a readiness, either temporary or permanent, to become a speaker of another language.
the extent to which a test provides consistent results.
a general term for the correction or modification of speech, either self-initiated or in response to teacher or peer feedback.
within cognitive learning theories, some theorists argue that learning does not occur at a steady pace. ınstead, restructuring is the process through which learners accommodate new knowledge through short bursts of understanding.
the interactional support given to learners that enables them to communicate successfully at a level beyond their current competence.
silent way
a ‘humanistic’ language teaching method that draws upon the belief that language learning is a personal enterprise. ın practice, the teacher keeps silent for much of the class, thereby requiring learners to create language rather than repeat it.