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social constructivism
a view of learning that emphasizes the importance of social interaction, so that knowledge is ‘jointly constructed’ before being internalized by individuals.
standard variety
the variety of a language that is usually used in writing, taught in schools and can be found in grammar books. english has a number of standard varieties.
structural syllabus
a programme of study that is organized primarily around forms, most typically sequences of discrete grammatical items.
suggestopedia
a ‘humanistic’ language teaching method that proposes that learning can be accelerated via the processes of suggestion, relaxation and concentration, all of which can be enhanced by the physical environment in which learning takes place.
summative assessment
end of course tests
syllabus
in british usage, the content of a particular language programme or the stepby- step guide that sequences and organizes content, specifying what is to be taught.
task
a classroom activity in which attention is focused primarily on meaning as learners aim to replicate real-world communication.
task-based learning
an approach to language teaching in which tasks are the central organizing principle of the syllabus and of lessons.
teachability hypothesis
the suggestion that instruction should focus only on language that learners are developmentally ready to learn,
total physical response
a ‘humanistic’ language teaching method that links physical action to learning.
universal grammar
the theory that all languages consist of a common set of linguistic principles.
validity
the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
washback
the influence of a test, either positive or negative, on teaching and learning.
world englishes
a term that recognizes (and values) the varieties of english spoken and written around the world, challenging the notion of a single native speaker norm.
zone of proximal development
associated with vygotsky, the zpd is the ‘place’ where, working with peers and ‘better others’, learners can work at a level that would otherwise be beyond their reach.