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Biological molecules


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Monomer
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
Polymer
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together by covalent bonds
Isomer
Molecules made of the same atoms arranged in different orders
Monosaccharide
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, that are generally some multiple of CH2O
Disaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage formed by a condensation reaction
Polysaccharide
Polymer built from many monosaccharide monomers joined by covalent bonds, e.g. starch and glycogen
Condensation
A 'joining' reaction where water is removed to form a covalent bond
Glycosidic linkage
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a condensation reaction
Alpha helix
A spiral structure found in carbohydrates and proteins, e.g. the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding between the atoms of the polypeptide backbone (not the side chains)
Beta pleated sheet
One of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain fold back and forth. 2 regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds between atoms
Carboxyl group
COOH, A group of atoms found in organic molecules consisting of carbon with a double bond to an oxygen and a single bond to a hydroxyl group
Hydroxyl group
COH, A group of atoms found in organic molecules consisting of hydrogen and an oxygen
Carbohydrase
Enzyme which breakdown carbohydrates into simple sugars
Protease
Enzyme which breakdown proteins into amino acids
Lipase
Enzyme which breakdown lipids into fatty acids and glycerol
Carbohydrate
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharide) or polymers (polysaccharide)
Triose
A sugar molecular that contains three carbon molecules
Reducing Sugar
A sugar that will turn Benedict’s solution brick red when heated in a boiling water bath
Pentose
A sugar molecular that contains five carbon molecules
Hexose
A sugar molecular that contains six carbon molecules
Sucrase
The enzyme that digests sucrose to fructose and glucose
Lactase
The enzyme that digests lactose to galactose and glucose
Maltase
The enzyme that digests maltose to glucose and glucose
Amylase
The enzyme that digests starch to maltose
Lactose Intolerance
Inability to digest lactose due to insufficient production of lactase. Lactose remains in the gut which is broken down by bacteria causing bloating (CO2) and diahrroea
Amino Group
H2N, A group of atoms found in organic molecules consisting of nitrogen bound to two hydrogen atoms
R Group
A variable chemical group attached to the core part of an amino acid
Peptide bond
The covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another, formed by a condensation reaction
Dipeptide
Two amino acids joined together with a peptide bond during condensation
Polypeptide
A polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
Activation energy
The energy required to bring about a reaction. The activation energy is lowered by the presence of enzymes
Active site
A group of amino acids with a 3-D shape that makes up the region of an enzyme into which the substrate fits and where bonds are formed in order to catalyse a reaction
Induced fit
Enzyme active site and substrate are a similar shape. Weak interaction at the beginning of the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex causes the active site to change shape to fit more closely with the substrate and stronger bonds to form
Enzyme-substrate complex
a temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to the substrate molecule(s).
Catabolic reaction
Chemical reactions where larger molecules are broken down to smaller molecules
Anabolic reaction
Building up of large molecules from smaller ones and usually require an input of energy
Substrate
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
Enzyme
Proteins that act as biological catalysts, speeding the rate at which biochemical reactions proceed but not altering the direction or nature of the reactions
Reaction rate (rate of reaction)
The speed of reaction for a reactant or product in a particular reaction is intuitively defined as how fast or slow a reaction takes place. For example, the oxidation of iron under the atmosphere is a slo
Collision theory
For a chemical reaction to occur, the reactant particles must collide with more energy than the activation energy required for that reaction.
Kinetic energy
The energy associated with the relative motion of objects. Moving matter can perform work by imparting motion to other matter.
Denaturation
In proteins, a process in which a protein loses its native shape due to the disruption of weak chemical bonds and interactions, thereby becoming Biologically inactive; e.g. denatured enzymes
Competitive inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate, whose structure it mimics
Non-Competitive Inhibitor
An inhibitor that is NOT a similar shape to the substrate and that binds AWAY FROM an enzymes active site changing its shape and preventing the substrate from binding and an enzyme-substrate complex forming
Primary structure of proteins
The sequence of amino acids
Secondary structure of proteins
The presence of beta pleated sheets and alpha helixes held together by hydrogen bonds
Tertiary structure of proteins
3D folding of the helix or pleated sheet
Quaternary structure of proteins
Large proteins (above 40,000 daltons) usually contain more than one polypeptide chain. e.g. haemoglobin - contains four identical polypeptide chains.
Fibrous protein
Wire-like protein that are usually structural e.g. cellulose makes up cell walls
Complementary shape
The specific 3-dimensional shape that enables a substrate to fit into an enzyme’s active site
Saturated fatty acid
Contain only single bonds and are fully saturated with H. straight chain
Mono-unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid chain that contains no more than one carbon-carbon double bonds that form a bent chain
Poly-unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid chain that contains more than one carbon-carbon double bonds and bends more than once
Triglyceride
An individual lipid of molecule made up of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids
Hydrolysis
a chemical reaction that breaks bonds between 2 molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers
Lipid
Non-Polar Molecules that contain carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen and are improtant molecules for cell membranes and hormones