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Nucleic acids


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Genetic code
The sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that determines the specific amino acid sequence in the synthesis of proteins
Polypeptide
A molecule containing many amino acids
Transcription
DNA is copied into messenger RNA (mRNA). RNA = ribonucleic acid. In mRNA uracil (U) is used instead of thymine (T).
mRNA
An RNA molecule that is created during transcription and is used to synthesise proteins
RNA
A molecule that is used to carry instructions in the cell. It is similar to DNA but contains uracil instead of thymine
DNA
A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell
Chromosome
A thread-like structure of protein and DNA by which hereditary information is physically passed from one generation to the next
Nucleotide
the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a 5 carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups
Polynucleotide
Many nucleotide bases joined together by phosphodiester bonds
Complementary base pairing
The pairing of genetic bases so that adenosine always binds to thymine (or uracil in RNA) and guanine always binds to cytosine
Double helix
The coiled structure of double-stranded DNA in which strands linked by hydrogen bonds form a spiral configuration, with the two strands oriented in opposite directions
Semi-Conservative Replication
The means by which DNA makes exact copies of itself by unwinding the double helix so that each chain acts as a template for the next. The new copies therefore possess one original and one new strand of DNA
Nucleotide
Complex chemicals made up of an organic base, a sugar and a phosphate. They are the basic units of which the nucleic acids DNA and RNA are made
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that catalyses the formation of a long chain of DNA
DNA helicase
An enzyme that moves along the phosphodiester backbone of DNA and separates the two strands.
Conservative Model of Replication
A model of DNA replication that suggested that the double strands of parental DNA remained together with an identical separate daughter DNA copy made. This would result in one copy made from entirely new nucleotides and one copy that was the original DNA.
Ribosome
a complex of rRNA and protein molecules that functions as a site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of a large and a small subunit. In eukaryotic cells, each subunit is assembled in the nucleus
Nuclear envelope
The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. The nuclear envelope has pores that allow the passage of materials into and out of the cell
Rough ER
Contains bound ribosomes • Proteins are produced here by a process called translation
Base Pair
the linking between two nitrogenous bases on opposite complementary DNA or certain types of RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds is called a? ............ ...........
Adenine
Purine that hydrogen bonds to thymine in DNA.
Thymine
Pyrimidine that bonds to adenine in DNA
Guanine
Purine that hydrogen bonds to cytosine in DNA.
Cytosine
Pyrimidine that bonds to guanine
Deoxyribose
A pentose sugar found in DNA.
Ribose
The 5 Carbon sugar component of RNA nucleotides
Hydrogen bond
A type of weak chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond
DNA ligase
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of one DNA fragment (such as an Okazaki fragment) to the 5' end of another DNA fragment (such as a growing
Okazaki fragment
A short segment of DNA synthesized away from the replication fork on a template strand during DNA replication, many of which are joined together to make up the lagging strand of newly synthesized DNA.
lagging strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5'?3' direction away from the replication fork.
ATP
a major intracellular currency for the exchange of energy
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
an adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells. Full Name!!!
ATP synthase
Enzyme associated with stalked particles in mitochondria and chloroplasts. It catalyses the joining of ADP and inorganic phosphate to make ATP.
Water
dissolves waste products of metabolism, acts as an insulator, serves as a lubricant between joints, and transports nutrients around the body