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Cell structures


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Artefact
Parts of the image that are not present in the natural sample
Endoplasmic reticulum
A three-dimensional system of sheet-like membranes, spreading through the cytoplasm of cells. It is continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope
Eukaryotic cell
Cells that possess a distinct nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Golgi Apparatus
An organelle that is formed by a stack of membranes the form cisternae. It is responsible for the modification, transport and storage molecules
Image
The appearance of a material when viewed under a microscope
Light Microscope
A microscope that uses light to create an image of an object
Lysosome
Vesicles which contain enzymes. The breakdown ingested material, release enzymes outside cells, digest organelles and breakdown dead cells.
Magnification
How many time bigger the image is compared to the object
Microscope
An instrument that magnifies the image of an object
Mitochondria
Cellular organelles that are the site of certain stages of respiration (the Krebs cycle and the oxidative phosphorylation pathway).
Nuclear envelope
A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus. Its outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. It controls the entry and exit of material from the nucleus
Nuclear pores
Holes in the nuclear membrane that allow the passage of large molecules, such as RNA, out of the nucleus.
Nucleolus
A small spherical body within the nucleoplasm. It manufactures ribosomal RNA and sassembles the ribosomes
Nucleoplasm
A granular, jelly-lik material that makes up the bulk of the nucleus
Nucleus
Contains an organism’s hereditary meterail and controls the cell’s activites
Object
The material that is put under the micoscope
Organelles
Membrane bound structures within cells
Resolution
The minimum distance apart that two objects can be in order for them to appear as separate items
Ribosomes
Small cytoplasmic granules that are found in all cells and are important in protein synthesis.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Has ribosomes on its surface. It is responsible for the synthesis of proteins and providing a transport pathway for materials throughout the cell.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Does not have ribosomes on its surfaces and is responsible for the synthesis, storage and transport of lipids and carbohydrates
Ultrastructure
The detailed structure of a biological specimen, such as a cell, tissue, or organ, that can be observed only by electron microscopy.
Vesicle
A small membrane bound sac that contains liquid
Scanning Electron Microscope
A microscope that scatters electrons of the surface on an object to create an image
Transmission Electron Microscope
A microscope that passes electrons through a small section of material in order to create an image of an object
Supernatant
The fluid at the top of a tube after centrifugation
Pellet
The solid material at the bottom of a tube after centrifugation
Homogenisation
The process of breaking down cells
Homogenate
The liquid that is produced after homogenisation. It will include, among other things, cellular debris, organelles and cytoplasm
Chromatin
The DNA found within the nucleoplasm. This is the diffuse form that chromosomes take up when the cell is not dividing.
First growth (G¬1) Phase
Stage of the cell cycle when proteins are synthesised
Interphase
Phase in which cell goes through normal cellular processes.
Metaphase
Chromatids are pulled by spindle fibres to the equator of the cell
Prophase
The chromosomes condense and the nuclear envelope breaks down. Spindle fibres start to form from the centrioles
Mitosis
A type of nuclear division in which the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cells
Second growth (G2) Phase
Stage of the cell cycle when organelles grow and divide and energy stores increase
Anaphase
Chromatids are pulled apart by spindle fibres contracting. Chromatids are pulled to opposite poles of the cell
Telophase
The nuclear envelope reforms and the cell membrane begins to pinch together to form 2 new cells
Synthesis (S) Phase
Stage of the cell cycle when DNA is replicated.
Spindle
The spindle fibers are the structure that separates the chromosomes into the daughter cells during cell division. It is part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells.
Cytokinesis
The cell membrane pinches together splitting the original parent cell into 2 daughter cells
Nuclear envelope
The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. The nuclear envelope has pores that allow the passage of materials into and out of the cell
Prokaryotic cell
Cells that do not possess a distinct nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Chloroplast
Disc shaped organelles, commonly found in plant cells, that are the site of photosynthesis
Chloroplast Envelope
A double plasma membrane that surrounds the chloroplast. It is highly selective in what it allows to leave and enter the chloroplast
Grana
A stack of up to 100 thylakoids. This is the site of the first stage of photosynthesis.
Thylakoids
Disc-like structures that contain chlorophyll.
Chlorophyll
A green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis
Stroma
The fluid-filled matrix in chloroplasts where the second stage of photosynthesis takes place.