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Cell recognition and the immune system


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Agglutinins
Antibodies that coat pathogens and stick them together
Antibodies
Proteins that can destroy or help to destroy a pathogen by attaching to a specific antigen, 1 antibody = 1 antigen
Antigen
A protein on the surface of a pathogen that stimulates an immune response
Antigenic variability
When the antigens on a pathogen are constantly changing
Antigen-presenting cell
Any cell that can insert an antigen into its membrane for detection by other immune cells
Clonal selection
The process of lymphocyte selection and activation in which only those cells with specific receptors for an antigen proliferate.
Herd immunity
A type of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of a portion of the population (or herd) provides protection to unprotected individuals
Immunity
The ability of the body to repel an infection before it causes harm
Lysins
Antibodies that bind to pathogens and disrupt their membrane causing them to burst
Lysosome
A membrane bound compartment that contains an digestive enzymes
Macrophage
A white blood cell that can destroy pathogens by Phagocytosis
Memory cell
2 forms: T- and B-. Enable T- and B-lymphocytes to reproduce rapidly in the event of secondary infection
Monoclonal antibodies
Antibodies that only recognise on antigen
Opsonins
Antibodies that coat pathogens and make them easier for macrophages to phagocytise
Phagocytosis
When phagocytes attach themselves to the surface of the bacterium, Engulf the bacterium and form a phagosome that fuses with lysosomes that contain hydrolytic enzymes to digest the pathogen ready to be absorbed
Phagolysosome
A membrane bound compartment that contains the digested remains of ingested particle or pathogen
Phagosome
A membrane bound compartment that contains an ingested particle or pathogen
Plasma Cell
B-cells that produce antibodies
Polyclonal antibodies
A mixture of antibodies that are specific to different antigens on the same pathogen
Proliferation
Rapid growth
Supression
To prevent the growth or production of something
T-Helper cell
T-lymphocytes which will only connect with 1 specific antigen to then stimulate the specific B-cells to proliferate via clonal selection that can destroy the pathogen
T-Killer cell
T-lymphocytes that attack pathogens by inserting a protein in their membrane and bursting them. T cells can also destroy body cells that have been infected with bacteria or viruses and present the pathogens antigen on their surface
Vaccination
Injection with a substance designed to protect against disease
Non-specific response
Defence mechanisms that do no distinguish between one type of pathogen and another and involve phagocytosis
Specific response
Defence mechanisms that distinguish between one type of pathogen and another and involve B- and T-lymphocyts
Humoral response
The defence of the body against pathogens via the production of antibodies and B-lymphocytes
Cell-mediated response
The defence of the body against pathogens via T-lymphocytes
Lysozyme
An enzyme that catalyzes the destruction of the cell walls of certain bacteria
Artifical Active Immunity
Immunity that has results from the generation of memory cells due to artificial infection, e.g. injecting dead bacteria
Natural Passive Immunity
Immunity that results from the presence of antibodies which the body has not generated and which have been introduced into the body by natural means e.g. breast feeding
Natural Active Immunity
Immunity that has results from the generation of memory cells due to natural infection, e.g. catching the disease
Artificial Passive Immunity
Immunity that results from the presence of antibodies which the body has not generated and which have been introduced into the body by artificial means e.g. antitoxins for snake venom
Primary Response
The antibodies produced the first time the body is infected. This is usually relatively slow and there are less antibodies produced.
Secondary Response
The antibodies produced the second time the body is infected. This is usually rapid and there is a large amount of antibodies produced.
Histamine
A hormone that causes inflammation
Lytic enzymes
Enzymes that destroy cells
B-lymphocytes
These cells divide by mitosis to produce plasma cells to produce antibodies. After infection these cells can become B-Memory cells
Glycoprotein
A protein with 1 or more covalently attached carbohydrates whose function is to act as an antigen for cell recognition
ELISA
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An assay for quantitating either antibody or antigen by use of an enzyme-linked antibody and a substrate that forms a colored reaction product.
Clonal selection
The process by which an antigen selectively binds to and activates only those lymphocytes bearing receptors specific for the antigen. The selected lymphocytes are all genetically identical
cytotoxic T cell
A type of cloned lymphocyte that, when activated, kills infected cells as well as certain cancer cells and transplanted cells. To destroy the cells a protein called perforin is produced that makes holes in the membrane of cells displaying the antigen from the pathogen, the cell will now be more permeable and it dies due to a loss/ gain of water by osmosis
HIV
The infectious agent that causes AIDS
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
The symptoms and signs present during the late stages of HIV infection, defined by a specified reduction in the number of T cells and the appearance of characteristic secondary infections.
Virus
Live and reproduce inside cells. Antibiotics do not kill them.