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Differentiation
The process by which cells become specialised for different functions
Tissue
A group of similar cells organised into a structural unit that serves a particular function
Organ
A group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions
Water potential
The pressure created by water molecules. It is the measure of the extent to which a solution gives out water. The greater the number of water molecules present, the higher (less negative) the water potential.
Gaseous exchange
The process by which oxygen is extracted from inhaled air into the bloodstream, and, at the same time, carbon dioxide is eliminated from the blood and exhaled
Connective tissue
Tissue that connects, supports, binds, or separates other tissues or organs.
Respiratory system
The system for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide
Alveoli
Minute air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. These are the site of gaseous exchange
Ventiliation
The movement of air in and out of the lunds
Lung function
A measure of how much air the lungs can move in and out, and how quickly and efficiently this can be done.
Inspiration/Inhalation
When the air pressure in the lungs is lower than that of the atmospher and air is forced into the lungs
Exhalation/Exhalation
When the air pressure in the lungs is greater than that of the atmospher and air is forced out of the lungs
Trachea
A flexible airway that is supported by rings of cartilage and transports are through the neck
Bronchi
Two division of the trachea, each leading to one lung.
Bronchioles
A series of branching tubes off of the bronchi
Diaphragm
A sheet of muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen
Abdomen
The belly
Thorax
The chest
Intercoastal muscles
Muscles that lie between the ribs.
Pulmonary ventilation
The amount of air that is taken in and out of- the lungs in a given time. Pulmonary ventilation = tidal volume x ventilation rate
Tidal volume
The volume of air normally taken in at each breath when the body is at rest
Ventilation rate
The number of breaths taken in one minute
Xylem
Dead, hollow, elongated tubes, with lignified side walls and no end walls, that transport water in most plants
Phloem
The vascular tissue in plants that transports sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves.
Organ system
A group of organs that work together to perform a certain task.
Cilia
A short, microscopic, hairlike structure on the outside of cells
Diffusion
The movement of molecules or ions from a region where they are in high concentration to a region where they are in low concentration
Hypothesis
A specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study.
Osmosis
The passage of water from a region of high water potential to a region where its water potential is lower through a partially permeable membrane
Causal link
When one factors leads to the occurrence of a second factor.
Correlation
A change in one of two variables that is reflected by a change in the other variable
Stoma (plural stomata)
A pore, mostly in the lower epidermis of a leaf, through which gases diffuses in and out of the leaf
Theory
A well-established principle that has been developed to explain some aspect of the natural world. A theory arises from repeated observation and testing and incorporates facts, laws, predictions, and tested hypotheses that are widely accepted.
Spongy mesophyll layer
Tissues in a leaf comprising cells of irregular shape separated by large spaces in which the atmosphere is humid. Spongy mesophyll is the site of gaseous exchange for photosynthesis and respiration.
Palisade layer
A tissue in the leaf, just underneath the cuticle, that contains long, narrow cells which are packed with chloroplasts and are the main site of photosynthesis
Guard cell
One of the paired epidermal cells that control the opening and closing of a stoma in plant tissue.