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Level 7

Mass transport


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Atrium
A thin walled and elastic chamber in the heart. The atria receive blood from the veins.
Ventricle
A thick walled muscular chamber in the heart. The ventricles receive blood from the atria.
Atrioventricular valves
The valves in the heart that stop blooding flowing backwards from the ventricle into the atrium
Semilunar valves
Valves between the ventricles and arteries that prevent blow flowing back into the ventricles
Cardiac cycle
A sequence of events that results in the pumping of blood round the body
Bicuspid valve
The atrioventricular valve on the left side of the heart. It is made up of two cup-shaped flaps.
Tricuspid valve
The atrioventricular valve on the right side of the heart. It is made up of three cup-shaped flaps.
Blood pressure
Blood pressure is a measurement of the force applied to the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body.
Cardiac output
The volume of blood pumped by one ventricle of the heart in one minute. Cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume
Pulse
The regular throbbing of the arteries, caused by the successive contractions of the ventricles within the heart
Cardiovascular disease
A disease of the heart of blood vessels
Coronary heart disease
A narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart.
Thoracic cavity
The chest cavity
Aorta
The artery that is connected to the left ventricle and which carries oxygenated blood to all parts of the body except the lungs
Vena Cava
The vein that is connected to the right atrium and that brings deoxygenated blood back from the body.
Pulmonary artery
This artery is connected to the right ventricle and carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Pulmonary vein
This vein is connected to the left atrium and brings oxygenated blood back from the lungs.
Coronary Arteries
Blood vessels which branch of the aorta and supply the cardiac muscle
Diastole
The phase of the cardiac cycle where the muscular walls of the heart are relaxed allowing blood to flow into the atria
Atrial systole
The phase of the cardiac cycle where the atria contract and force blood into the ventricle.
Ventricular systole
The phase of the cardiac cycle where the ventricles contract and force blood out into the arteries
Pocket valves
Valves in veins that ensure, when the veins are squeezed by contaction of surround skeletal muscle, blood is pushed towards the heart and cannot flow backward
Heart rate
The rate at which the heart beats
Stroke volume
The volume of blodd pumped out of the heart each time it beats
Atheroma
A fatty deposit within the wall of an artery
Primary Structure
The sequence of amino acids in a protein
Low-density lipoproteins
Transport cholesterol from the liver to the tissues.
Athermomatous plaque
An atheroma which has grown to form an irregular patch
Secondary Structure
The presence of beta pleated sheets and alpha helixes
Thrombus
A blood clot
Tertiary Structure
The 3D structure of a protein
Myocardium
Heart muscle
Quaternary Structure
The interaction between more than one polypeptide
High-density lipoproteins
Remove cholesterol from tissues and transport it to the liver for excretion.
High Affinity of haemoglobin
Oxygen binds more easily to haemoglobin but is given up less readily
Antioxidants
A substance such as vitamin C or E that removes potentially damaging oxidizing agents in a living organism.
Low Affinity
Oxygen binds less easily to haemoglobin but is given up more readily
Electrocardiogram
The measurement of the electrical changes that occur in the heart during the cardiac cycle
Loading/Associating
The process by which haemoglobin combines with oxygen
Unloading/Dissociating
The process in which haemoglobin releases its oxygen
Oxygen Dissociation Curve
A graph that shows the relationship between oxygen concentration in the environment and the percentage saturation of haemoglobin molecules
Lignin
A polymer that binds to cellulose fibers and hardens and strengthens the cell walls of plants