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Genetic diversity


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Continuous Variation
Variation in which organisms do not fall into distinct categories but show gradations from one extreme to the other, e.g. height
Discontinuous Variation
Variation shown when the characters of organisms fall into distinct categories e.g. dog coat colour
Normal Distribution
When the distribution of many random variables occurs as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph
Mean
An average of a set of values found by adding all the values together and dividing them by the number of values present.
Standard deviation
The standard deviation is a measure of how spread out the data is. It is calculated using the following equation:
Variation
Difference between organisms of different species
Intraspecific variation
Differences between organisms of the same species
Genetic variation
The way in which members of the same species differ from each other
Environmental variation
Variation in organisms that is caused by a difference in the environment that the organism experiences
Genetic diversity
Genetic variation within a population or species
Artificial selection
Breeding of organisms by human selection of parents or gametes in order to make sure certain characteristics are inherited and/or to eliminate unwanted characteristics
Interspecific Variation
The way one species differs from another
Sampling bias
Bias in experimental results
Bias
When the values obtained in an experiment are different from the true values either due to the unconscious effect of opinions or expectations of the investigator or due the conscious desire of an investigator to obtain a particular result
Random sampling
A sampling method in which all members of a group have an equal and independent chance of being selected.
Mutation
A sudden change in the amount of arrangement of genetic material in the cell
Meiosis
A type of nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes is halved
Gametes
A reproductive (or sex) cell that contains half the normal amount of genetic material and joins with another gamete during fertilisation
First meiotic division
The first stage of meiosis where homologous chromosome pairs are split so one of each pair ends up in each daughter chromosome
Second meiotic division
The second stage of meiosis where the chromatids of a chromosome move apart.