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Speaker of the House
the political and parliamentary leader of the House of Representatives, and is simultaneously the House's presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, and the institution's administrative head.
Senate President
Vice President serves in this role. The longest serving member of the majority party in the Senate is the Senate President Pro Tempore
majority leader
The highest ranking political leader in the senate and 2nd to the Speaker in the House
minority leader
Leader of the minority party in the House or Senate
Leadership position below Speaker and Majority leader. Mostly responsible for ensuring votes for legislation
committee heads
Leadership position below Speaker and Majority leader. Mostly responsible for ensuring votes for legislation
senate holds
a parliamentary procedure permitted by the Standing Rules of the United States Senate which allows one or more Senators to prevent a motion from reaching a vote on the Senate floor.
Unanimous consent in Senate
A senator may request unanimous consent on the floor to set aside a specified rule of procedure so as to expedite proceedings. If no Senator objects, the Senate permits the action, but if any one senator objects, the request is rejected.
A vote can be prevented in the Senate without a vote of cloture, which usually requires 60 votes.
Stops debate and forces a vote in the senate, usually with 60 votes
rules committee
A committee that decides whether bills can be changed, which committee the bill goes to, and when and if the bill comes up for a vote
Committee of the Whole
a committee of the House on which all Representatives serve and which meets in the House Chamber for the consideration of measures from the Union calendar.
discharge petition
a means of bringing a bill out of committee and to the floor for consideration without a report from the committee by "discharging" the committee from further consideration of a bill or resolution.
Treaty ratification
Two thirds of the senate is required to ratify a treaty
confirmation role
A simple majority is required to confirm judges, ambassadors, or judges
pork barrel spending
spending in one's district to create jobs and business
log rolling
trading votes on legislation to get more passed for your district
discretionary spending
money spent on programs like the military, national parks etc that can be cut at any time
mandatory spending
money spent on money that is promised in the future and cannot be cut in the short run like social security and interest on the national debt
spending on programs such as Social Security benefits, Medicare, and Medicaid.
when the government spends more than it takes in taxes
manipulate the boundaries of (an electoral constituency) so as to favor one party or class.
the process of drawing electoral district boundaries in the United States.
Baker v. Carr
Brennan concluded that the Fourteenth Amendment equal protection issues which Baker and others raised in this case merited judicial evaluation. Allowed courts to challenge redistricting. In this case, "One man, one vote"
Shaw v. Reno
The court ruled in a 5-4 decision that redistricting based on race must be held to a standard of strict scrutiny under the equal protection clause. Could not gerrymander based on race.
Trustee Model
Congresspeople should vote for what they think is best
Delegate model
Congresspeople should vote for what the people in their district want
Politico Model
Congresspeople should vote with what the people in their district want if the issue gets a lot of coverage, but as s/he thinks best when their constituents don't care
President can stop a piece of legislation in its entirety
pocket veto
an indirect veto of a legislative bill by the president or a governor by retaining the bill unsigned until it is too late for it to be dealt with during the legislative session.
a head of state or officer in supreme command of a country's armed forces.
executive agreements
an international agreement, usually regarding routine administrative matters not warranting a formal treaty, made by the executive branch of the US government without ratification by the Senate.
President's treaty power
President's get to negotiate treaties before being ratified by the Senate
executive orders
a rule or order issued by the president to an executive branch of the government and having the force of law.
signing statements
a written pronouncement issued by the President of the United States upon the signing of a bill into law. They are usually printed along with the bill in United States Code Congressional and Administrative News
cabinet members
part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The Cabinet's role, inferred from the language of the Opinion Clause (Article II, Section 2, Clause 1) of the Constitution is to serve as an advisory body to the President of the United States. The department heads also usually have loyalty to their departments.
an accredited diplomat sent by a country as its official representative to a foreign country.
White House Staff
an entity within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The White House Office is headed by the White House Chief of Staff, who is also the head of the Executive Office of the President.
22nd Amendment
A President can only serve 2 terms
A state of the union
an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress,
bully pulpit
a public office or position of authority that provides its occupant with an outstanding opportunity to speak out on any issue.
Marbury v. Madison
established the principle of judicial review—the power of the federal courts to declare legislative and executive acts unconstitutional.
an earlier event or action that is regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances.
stare decisis
the legal principle of determining points in litigation according to precedent.
a rule or order issued by an executive authority or regulatory agency of a government and having the force of law.
issue networks
an alliance of various interest groups and individuals who unite in order to promote a common cause or agenda in a way that influences government policy.
iron triangles
comprises the policy-making relationship among the congressional committees, the bureaucracy, and interest groups.
merit system
the process of promoting and hiring government employees based on their ability to perform a job, rather than on their political connections.
department of homeland security
a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries. Its stated missions involve anti-terrorism, border security, immigration and customs, cyber security, and disaster prevention and management.[3] It was created in response to the September 11 attacks and is the youngest U.S. cabinet department.
department of transportation
is a federal Cabinet department of the U.S. government concerned with transportation. Controls highway construction, Amtrak, etc.
department of veterans affairs
a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country; several non-healthcare benefits including disability compensation, vocational rehabilitation, education assistance, home loans, and life insurance; and provides burial and memorial benefits to eligible veterans and family members at 135 national cemeteries.
Department of Education
It has under 4,000 employees and an annual budget of $68 billion (2016). The 2019 Budget also supports $129.8 billion in new postsecondary grants, loans, and work-study assistance to help an estimated 11.5 million students and their families pay for college.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection. The source for environmental regulation.
Federal Elections Commission
an independent regulatory agency whose purpose is to enforce campaign finance law in United States federal elections.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
an independent agency of the United States federal government. The SEC holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws, proposing securities rules, and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other activities and organizations, including the electronic securities markets in the United States.
Committee Hearings
a method by which committee members gather information to inform committee business. Business dealt with by hearings may be broadly classified into four types: legislative, oversight, investigative, and consideration of presidential nominations.
power of the purse
The influence that legislatures have over public policy because of their power to vote money for public purposes.
Congressional Oversight
oversight by the United States Congress over the Executive Branch, including the numerous U.S. federal agencies. Includes the review, monitoring, and supervision of federal agencies, programs, activities, and policy implementation.