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to abide by
to accept and act according to a law, an agreement, etc.
parliamentary democracy
dân chủ nghị viện: Freedom of speech is usually one of the rights enjoyed by citizens in a ______.
to adhere to
tuân thủ: Governments which fail ______ their election promises generally become unpopular very quickly.
constitutional government
Chính phủ hiến pháp: The media have an important role to play in reporting on the actions of politicians, to ensure the proper functioning of __________.
the executive branch
Chi nhánh hành pháp: The enforcement of policies affecting schools and hospitals is the responsibility of ______ of the government.
the legislative branch
ngành lập pháp: Laws relating to human rights have been passed by ______ of many national governments.
the separation of powers
sự phân chia quyền hạn: In the USA, the independence of the courts from the government is safeguarded by _________.
to adopt policies
(v) thông qua các chính sách: In order to deal with traffic congestion, the government must _______ to restrict the use of private cars.
to impose spending cuts
(v) áp đặt chính sách cắt giảm chi tiêu: It is essential for the authorities ______ on space programs in order to fund health services.
to raise taxes on
(v) tăng thuế lên: Governments should _______ cigarettes to persuade more people to give up smoking.
to curb public spending on
(v) hạn chế chi tiêu công: I would argue that it is preferable ______ building new roads rather than to impose spending cuts on education.
to allocate resources to
(v) Phân bổ các nguồn lực để: If governments ________ improving public transport, this will reduce the problem of traffic congestion in cities.
to introduce restrictions on
(v) giới thiệu các hạn chế về: The government must _______ smoking in public places.
to infringe upon something
(v) vi phạm điều gì đó: Governments must sometimes ________ individual freedoms in the wider interests of society.
to be a government priority
(v) trở thành ưu tiên của chính phủ: In developing countries, spending on health and education should _________.
to prioritize expenditure on
(v) ưu tiên chi tiêu cho: I believe that it is important _______ medical research in order to save lives.
to provide funding for
(v) cung cấp tài chính cho: ____health care must be a priority of governments.
high on the agenda
(n) cao trong chương trình nghị sự: The rehabilitation of prisoners must be _________ of prison authorities everywhere.
to exert pressure on
(v) gây áp lực lên: Environmental organisations should _______ governments to invest in renewable energy projects.
to form a pressure group
(v) tạo thành một nhóm gây áp lực: Activists in my country have _______ to persuade the government to close nuclear power stations.
to provide public subsidies for
(n) bổ sung trợ cấp công cho: In order to promote agriculture that is environmentally-friendly, the government should ______ organic farmers.
international bodies
(n) cơ quan quốc tế: National governments ought to give funds to _______, like the Red Cross and the United Nations, to deal with emergency situations.
national and local authorities
government organizations acting at a national level or within a smaller, local area
non-governmental organizations
(n) tổ chức phi chính phủ: Individuals could donate money to NGOs to help others in need of food, shelter and medical services.
to campaign for something
(v) vận động một cái gì đó: People who are concerned about the environment should ______ stricter controls on pollution.
government decision-making
(n) sự đưa ra quyết định của chính phủ: Pressure groups are sometimes able to influence ______.
to impose an official ban on
(v) áp đặt một lệnh chính thức về: Governments ought to _______ the use of mobile phones on public transport.
government sponsorship
(n) sự bảo trợ của chính phủ: _____ of the arts is necessary if creative talent is to be encouraged.
a welfare state
(n) một nhà nước phúc lợi: In order to eradicate poverty, I believe that ________ should be established in all developing countries.
a stopgap measure
(n) một biện pháp tạm thời: Building more prisons will not solve the problem of rising crime rates, but it is ______ which the government must take to protect ordinary citizens.